Thursday, 29 December 2016

Saved Buildings

The increased frequency of earthquakes around the world has brought Home the urgency of a planned programme for ensuring safety in design and construction of new buildings and comprehensive need for retrofitting the existing building against collapse during disasters such as earthquakes, cyclones or flooding. The reasons for deficiency could include the following:

1.At the time of building construction, there may not have been adequate concern regarding disasters such as earthquakes and hence, the building might have been executed without fulfilling the requirements of safety measures.

2.In the case of old buildings, deterioration of the material with age or changes in the occupancy category may place the building in a vulnerable category introducing significant structural deficiency.

What is a retrofit?
During an earthquake, the ground and the structure shake violently. This back-and-forth motion and can cause a building to fall off its foundation, resulting in major damage to the structure and sometimes even total collapse. Seismic retrofit is not rocket science, and the basic principles are easily understood. One can quickly learn all that is needed to make informed decisions regarding the retrofitting of one's own Home. Retrofitting focuses on strengthening the house-to-foundation connections using specially designed hardware and engineered construction methods. Retrofitting allows a house to withstand much greater earthquake forces with much less structural damage.

Since, disasters and the forces generated by them are unpredictable retrofitting cannot guarantee that a House will receive no damage at all. However, it has been proven that retrofitting greatly reduces the amount of damage a House receives and is highly effective in preventing catastrophic collapse and loss of life. While retrofitting, the building is provided with additional strength, stiffness and ductility to ensure acceptable performance during future disasters. Modern building codes have been written so that, newer Homes usually don't need to be seismically reinforced if they are properly constructed. However, the Builders sometimes do not understand provisions of the code that are specific to detailing reinforcement and neglect to follow these aspects of the building code. A proper evaluation will reveal if a building needs retrofit, regardless of whether it is new or old. Walls and columns are the most critical elements during disasters. Thousands of structures in metropolitan areas in India need assessment and retrofitting if loss of life is to be minimized during the disasters. The concepts of assessment and retrofitting are well known and will enable both life safety and reduction in loss of property damage. The cost of retrofitting will not be prohibitive, because only existing weaknesses in building that are identified during the evaluation are rectified during the retrofitting.

Architects do not design retrofits; this is something done by Structural or Civil Engineers. As in other fields, Engineers tend to specialise, so if you choose to work with an Engineer, be sure he is one with special training in retrofit design. Contractors, who have had special training in retrofit engineering principles, can take up installation. Seismic retrofit technology is continually evolving, and a Retrofit Contractor needs to understand and follow the most current seismic retrofit standards. It is also important that he teams up with a Structural Engineer. A retrofit generally, costs between 5 percent and 10 percent of a Home's value. For many Home Owners, the one-time cost of a retrofit equals a few years of earthquake insurance. And insurance won't prevent or reduce damage to your home, but retrofitting will.

Tuesday, 27 December 2016

Traditional House

                                      Traditional house of Kerala

A traditional courtyard house in a village in Kerala is known as “Puthupparambil”. It has very compacted rooms whose walls are painted with lime. Jack wood is used in the ceiling and doors which are just the right height to let people walk underneath. There is an open courtyard in the centre measuring ten by ten feet. Air, light and rain can enter the house through this. A hanging cot or thookukattil in the open living area is there for any Visitor to rock in them and even to mediate. It imparts a homely feeling.

The form of a house depends upon parameters like scale, climate and so on along with other elements like technology, colour and materials. A building is commonly designed on the basis of two fundamental design parameters like function and form. Function talks about the usefulness of the building, whereas Form means the way it appears.

One of the rules is to select the correct form for the house for which one of the parameters is scale. This is described as the dimensional relationship of the human body with the space and things it comes in touch with. It is a tool of ideas used by Architects and Designers in designing the building and other kind of built spaces. 

A house and its inner space look more intimidating and less intimate with a higher scale and more humane, when the space are scaled down from being big to the optimum level. This factor has an important part to play in giving character to any space. A living room may look like a hotel lobby and a bedroom a dormitory when the scale is not right. 

Houses need to be humanised by bringing the functionality of the house down as much as possible and this is one of the chief rules followed by Ancient Master Designers. All that is avoidable should be discarded.

A house becomes part of its surroundings fully.  The entire property occupied by the house forms the house or true habitat. That is the most humanised kind of house.  The physical form of our living spaces has a lot to do with the climate such as a typical village life in India. A Villager’s house is a part of the Environment used for his everyday life. The property may also have a well, a cowshed, a front side and back yard. In the front yard will be platform built for guests. Vegetables will be grown, dishes washed and grains dried in the side and rear yard.

Besides, the principles used in planning the buildings and the materials used for building are also important in humanising our houses. The use of heat retaining materials like concrete and glass if reduced, and use of natural material like bricks, wood and terracotta if increased, will serve to make our houses more humane.

As our nation is going through an energy crisis, it is important to reduce energy consumption brought about through artificial air conditioning and lighting systems. It can be done by joining the rooms with internal courtyards and gardens and outer open space. With Indian’s tropical climate, one can make the best use of a planning style known as open architecture. The rooms should be planned in such a way that they are well lit and airy.Materials that are available locally are cheaper than glass and aluminum imported from Belgium and Australia.

Our living spaces should be humanized to the greatest extent possible.  This helps in integrating ourselves mentally and physically with our environment.The use of glass in your house can trap heat inside the house on account of the “Green House Effect’. Using eco-friendly materials gives a feeling of physical and mental well being. Colours of the house should not be chosen arbitrarily as they affect one’s moods. They should spend sufficient time with their Architect, to explain the kind of house that they want. Use art to make you relate better to your home as you can be passionate about it. For humanising your house the architecture has to be done with heart.

Monday, 26 December 2016

A Beautiful Exterior for Home

                                       A Beautiful Exterior for Home


The first impression should always be a good impression. This goes for the outside of the home too and it is a place, where there is ample opportunity to try out your ideas of home decor. 

The gate is the first feature that demands one's attention. It should really have an aesthetic quality, whether it is small and compact or a large and fancy one. It is important to keep it in good condition by regularly cleaning and painting it. A lovely touch can be obtained by having a creeper growing round an arch with metal wiring above the gate, overhung with flowers such as Jasmine or Bougainville. This should be regularly trimmed so that it will not come in the way visitors and the leaves and flowers below must be swept away.

Although the mailbox is usually thought of as a utilitarian article, one could be different and buy a good looking one or convert an aesthetic piece into a mailbox and set it outside. For those, who live in enclaves that are gated or if there is a watchman, this will be a safer option as nobody could think of walking off with it. 

When people call at one's home, they usually wait outside the front door and gaze about the place. To make this area pretty, one could place potted plants in special ceramic or terracotta containers over there. A wrought iron stand holding small containers with bonsai plants or in the popular coffee-stump holders is good. A cloth, terracotta or metal wall hanging is not very expensive and is at the same time striking.

There is an infinite variety of front doors to choose from nowadays. Antique ones picked up from old homes. Temples and churches are popular. These can be done up and fixed in place. Carvings of floral patterns or popular Gods and Goddesses are often present. One can buy them in dark wood or in black and suede.

Many people like to have attractive door handles and these are available in metals like brass and in many designs. It should match the appearance of the door. Antique ones too are available at retail stores. A pretty festoon in a bright red and gold with Gods and Goddesses or sprinkled with floral patterns would be popular over the threshold. In ethnic handicraft stores, one may find outstanding pieces or make one of their own if they are artistically inclined.

When there is an open space or semi-open verandah, one can even have a mural made of metal or terracotta on the wall next to the front door. Designer tiles with individual or combined patterns are also a popular choice. So, one can make their home complete by having good outdoor decor to make it more welcoming.




Parking area is a small piece of land in which we park our vehicle and drive-way is the approach leading to this parking bay. Though every square foot counts in terms of money and the demand for built up space is high, lack of adequate parking space and turning radius is bad planning. 

Whether it be a individual house, a small or large apartment complex, corporate business house, a multi-building campus or public facilities such as airports or stations, a lot of thought needs to go into the design of parking facilities. Parking lots whether for houses or office complex have to be designed not just for the present but with an eye on the future. Kerb side parking is also very important and an essential part of urban design. 

We have to adopt different norms when designing parking lots for residences, small or large apartment complexes, offices, commercial establishments, shopping complexes, a combination of shops and residences, hospitality sector, public spaces such as airports, railway and bus stations and recreation zones, campuses and so on. Thus, parking space can be decided depending on the nature of the activity. Road landscaping, which includes kerb side parking and public parking facilities, will also have to be dealt with as this is the base for smooth flow of traffic.

Parking designs

International norms for parking suggest that small and medium cars require about 200 sq.ft. The turning radius for various categories of vehicles is also stipulated ranging from about 30 ft. to less than 500 ft. for large trailer trucks. These figures may not make much sense to the common man whose primary need is to comfortably drive his vehicle in and out of a parking lot whether it be in his home, office or public spaces. 

When looking at parking for residences or apartments, the one norm to be strictly followed is that the gate must never open onto the road. When vehicles are jammed into small parking lots the gate will have to be opened outward to allow entry and exit and thus there is a major inconvenience. When designing the gate it is necessary to keep it to normal size about 8 ft. If the size of the gate cannot be widened to help easy turning it may be good idea to go in for a bell mouth at the entrance where a slightly inset gate will provide a wider entry point of about 11 ft. to 13 ft. 

Another point to be noted is that one must provide parking space for owned vehicles inside one's compound and not to drive cars onto side walks or in front of your neighbour's house. The residents and associations must never compromise for squeezing into a single parking slot more than one vehicle even if it were just for the night.

Parking for apartments is either provided alongside the building and is uncovered, or takes the form of covered parking at basement or the ground floor levels. When looking at the parking lot of any apartment, the first thing one has to note is the approach from the road. It must neither be a steep climb nor a sharp descent. If the parking is below or above road level it is safe to have a gradual slope approach. If parking slots are between stilts one must make sure that the distance between the pillars is adequate to park and reverse a car without having to turn very sharply. 

When parking lots are provided alongside buildings, what owners' should insist upon is that there must be enough space for free movement of another vehicle along side a parked one. In other words there should be a minimum 10ft. wide space between the parking slot and the building to allow vehicles to move around. 

When designing parking for independent houses four factors come to play. These are the positions of the gate, the porch, the drive and a garage. These factors have to be studied and decided even as the design of the house is taking shape. 

In the event of having a garage it needs to be located at the end of the drive and the drive design must allow room for reversing the car into or out of the garage. The option of securing the garage with shutters or leaving it open on the sides is an option depending more on the security aspect. Also if the garage were to double as an extended attic, then it is necessary to provide space for washing of cars alongside the garage. The garage and the utility area need to have proper flooring that efficiently drains the water. 

In small sized plots it may not be possible to accommodate a drive and a garage. Given the need to provide larger built-up space for two cars and a gate or may be two gates that allow easy access and exiting, the only option available is to allow cars to be piled on one behind the other. In such cases one can bring in porches that could stretch across the entire parking area. These porches can be worked out further by providing an upper deck that can either be landscaped or used as living space or balconies. It would be good to avoid kerb wall level planter boxes as these may come in the way of reversing vehicles, especially larger ones. 

As the plot grows in size the options in designing a drive that connects the porch to the gate and perhaps the garage are many. In most cases architects prefer a sweeping drive that curves into the porch as this is best suited for both access and reverse and also because this design, though simple, is the most aesthetic. Providing meandering pathways in the front lawn for which the drive would most often be the boundary can also complement it. Also in the event of more cars being parked at night, the curve in the drive will help easy reversing of vehicles even if there are vehicles parked all along the drive. 

When choosing drive way material it would be a good option to go in for loose paving. This will allow good percolation of water and improve rain-harvesting. The interspersed grass would green the drive. Also individual stones that may be damaged or stained in course of time can be replaced. 

Once we have decided to park the vehicles in the porch, we must decide on the size of the porch which may have to accommodate more than two cars. Such large porches need not just be a roof resting on four pillars but can be transformed into a garden in itself. Strategically located planter boxes, landscaped niches, alcove windows looking out into the lawn or small open-to-sky landscaped court yards make the porch something more than a bland parking bay.

The roof of the porch is also an integral part of design. The options range from deciding whether to go in for a concrete roof or a pergola. Another aspect of porch design would be the flooring material and we will have to keep in mind when choosing flooring material that it must be weather proof, stain proof and non-slippery. 

It must also be kept in mind for houses spread over a large area that the children's play zone should be away from the drive, preferably on the other side of the house.

Thursday, 22 December 2016


                                       WARDROBE SELECTIONS

In spite of dwelling in a spacious home with all the necessary accessories, we at times face embarrassing moments, unable to find enough storage space. The discomfort arises either due to the storage space at home falling way short of requirements or failing to meet the required parameters. The wardrobes should be organized and structured in such a way so as to suit specific needs of the household.

In earlier times, wardrobes were more similar to stacks of shelves covered with wooden shutters, such a scene has now been drastically changed. There are enormous designs and options available, each customized to suit individual likes and requirements.

They range from simple structures with hanging provisions along with a set of drawers to ultramodern walk-in wardrobes entirely with display platforms and a lounge, in a space large enough to serve as a room. These walk-in wardrobes offer a lot of space for storage. Here, only one door is placed and everything else is open. There are no shutters which might be crowding out the available space.

Walk-in wardrobes are most convenient and suitable, when a small section has been separately earmarked for storage. In these types, instead of going in for the traditional wardrobes with individual shutters, the entire section is assigned one access door. 

Inside the walk-in closet, there should be plenty of hanging space defined at different heights, complemented by open shelves. The bottom level can sport deep drawers to store extra linen and things.

For storing of items like undergarments and others that cannot be hung, a separate set of drawers could be arranged. Footwear need not be clubbed along with the cloth items, which is also not hygienic.

The bottom section of a wardrobe can be used for the provision of a locker. It would be better to fabricate a locker in the bottom shelf and this locker should be anchored to the floor so that it becomes immobile. Even it could be concealed with a loose piece of wood if need arises. Usually the loft is used for storing suitcases and other large items that would not fit into the lower shelves of the wardrobe. Most often and unfortunately the loft and its contents are not easily accessible. This could be solved by having wardrobes that have large shelves so that these pieces could be accommodated.

This exercise could be done only in houses which can afford extra storing space. But space becoming the rarest of the commodities, nowadays, we have to resort to loft spaces for such storage. For such eventualities, it would be better to go in for a large dumping unit in the loft.

If wardrobes are situated in a not so much illuminated place, then lighting can be arranged inside them controlled by a toggle switch. A separate section could be kept for hanging clothes that have been used once, but will be worn again before washing. It will be sensible to have shutters in this section that will breathe. Even the storage unit for footwear should possess similar shutters.

In market plenty of wardrobes are available off the shelf to suit variable requirements. These come with adjustable shelves and in combinations of drawers, shelves and hanging space.

With all these apparent advantages like attractiveness, good designs and quick availability, the major requisite is the durability of the wardrobe. Most of the users are appreciative of a traditional wardrobe made from standard and solid wood and typically lasting 25 to 40 years. Being not customized they lack the personal touch. They are mostly standardized. They are not long lasting because they are essentially made from particleboard.

While acquiring a wardrobe it should be seen that its structure would have to be designed, keeping in mind the nature of the user and the quantum of storage space required. Also the available space for accommodating it should be taken into consideration.


If seen by such parameters, it will be clear that separate wardrobes to a woman and for children and for the arriving guests are to be designed and be made available.

After the nature of the user and the available space has been determined the aesthetic aspect should be defined. This also includes the expected lifetime of the wardrobe. Then as per these requirements, type of wood and décor can be decided.

As the shutters reflect the façade, they also should be decided with equal attention. The shutters can be varied, ranging from a combination of glass and wood, metal and wood or even fabric and wood.

When glass is chosen it will be prudent to ensure that the glass is not transparent as otherwise all the contents of a wardrobe would become objects of display. Either opaque glass or glass with detailing will fit well to the purpose for they would conceal the interiors. Though using colour for shutters is not a bad idea, too much of detailing on the shutters will not be wholly pleasant. The focus should not be taken away from the rest of the room. The wardrobe should not be structured as a show piece.

Normally when the wardrobe is designed some sections become dead spaces. They being inaccessible are less used. These sections can be filled with accessories that would help towards the efficient use of such spaces.

To make the inner areas accessible, a retractable, hanging rod can be placed in the top portions of the wardrobe. Even the shutters themselves can be used as storage spaces by placing the racks or slots for keeping handkerchiefs and odds and ends.

If at some positions normal open shutter cannot be conveniently placed then the use of collapsible shutters will be the best option. With these, the entire wardrobe will be enabled to be viewed at the same time.

For the wardrobes for use by children, open shelves would be safer. Children won't get their fingers jammed and hence would be safer. The use of glass shutters should be completely avoided, but use of colours for child's wardrobe will be most welcome.

Wednesday, 21 December 2016

Saying no to garden pests


Saying no to garden pests

Be it enlisting the help of your pet or utilizing bio manure, controlling pests in your garden has never been this easy

With the monsoons setting in, you must have noticed an inexplicable freshness in the greenery around you. Rains, the harbinger of life, add an element of magic to your garden too - be it a sprawling one, a terrace setup, or even a few pots.

But monsoon is also a season that spells trouble for your green spaces. The high humidity, constant showers and damp weather can take their toll on your precious plants. Apart from these, another major disadvantage of monsoon is the sudden influx of pests. Be it a rat that nibbles on your veggies and spreads diseases or slugs that damage your plants, garden pests can undo all your gardening efforts in a jiffy. But before you decide to reach out for the chemical insecticides and pesticides, here are a few eco-friendly and safe methods to eliminate garden pests.

Prevention is better

Rats, squirrels and some insects make their home in cracks, crevices, discarded pipes and other items. So first, attend to these and close all openings, which could potentially house the pests. As they are shy creatures, it is only when they multiply that we begin to notice them. Snails stick on to the underside of stones and rotting wood. Clear out all debris to send them a clear signal of inhospitality.

Plants need to be pruned as monsoon arrives. This helps them grow better. However, ensure the pruning is carefully done, as pruning them improperly can damage the plant. As the plants receive plenty of rainwater, proper draining of the excess water is essential. This keeps the roots healthy and vibrant. Make sure that there is no stagnation of water around the plants, which attract insects to breed. Delicate plants can be kept indoors or in the veranda to prevent them from rotting.

Encourage visitors

Next, take assistance of some friendly visitors to your garden that naturally feed on the unwanted animals without affecting your plants. A cat in the compound keeps the rats away. Birds visiting the garden feed on bugs and insects. So, having a birdbath or a small birdhouse will not only add an element of attraction to the garden but also help in pest control.

But beware if you happen have fruit trees around. You may want to protect the fruits from birds by covering them appropriately. Earthworms in the soil make it fertile and feed on the moss and fungi. Beetles or ladybirds, grasshoppers and frogs feed on aphids and other insects. So, encourage the presence of these animals to keep the pests under control.

Encash on their dislikes

Plant garlic, onion, mint and dandelions in proximity of the garden. The strong odours of these elements discourage rodents and insects. Some insects run away from peppermint sprays. Sprinkling turmeric prevents ants from raiding the soil and damaging the roots.

Another way is to strengthen the plants naturally and make them pest-resistant is to sprinkle neem powder, onion, garlic, ginger and cardamom peels on the soil. Bio manures like cow dung are very effective and nutrient rich for plants. This not only fortifies the soil but also keeps fungus and insects at bay.

Get rid of them

Some infestations call for extermination. Aphids are white, velvety type of insects that cling onto the plants and destroy them. They can be one of the most difficult plant infestations to get rid of. Use a harsh jet of water to dislodge them. As they hold on to the plant by their mouth, the spray of water dislocates them. You can buy beetles from horticultural suppliers and spread them around to eat the aphids away. Additionally, spray neem oil mixed with vinegar and a little detergent on the plants to ward off the aphids. They hate the bitter mix and will not choose your garden as a home.

To eliminate snails and slugs, beer is found to be quite effective. Placing small containers of beer around the garden attracts them to it. They ingest the intoxicating liquid and usually drown in the container. Weeds grow at an alarming rate in this season and eat up space and nutrients, hampering the growth of the plants. Diligently de-weed the garden as soon as you spot them.

Tuesday, 20 December 2016



It is only recently that Glass has emerged as a Viable Option for Decor Purposes. As glass is so fragile, few opt for it except at a subdued or minimal level. Most people underestimate the usefulness of this material in changing the appearance of the interiors if used in the right way. It will not only enhance, but transforms the decor of any place.

There are many forms in which glass may appear as part of a room. That depends on the Texture and Treatment it receives. It can be present as doors, roofs, partitions, floors, as part of a wardrobe, furniture or as artifacts and individual pieces. A plain glass door for a Library would look better with Beveled Edges but when it is used for a partition there are several options. A partition serves the triple purposes of giving privacy, marking off a section as well as being a Decorative, Artistic Piece. Treatments such as Slumping, Multi-layered Etching or Cluster work in the glass make a Stunning Partition.

Depicting flowing water, intricate designs etc., can be embossed on sheets of glass by multi-layered Etching and Cluster work. Another option is shattered glass in which a piece of glass is kept between two others and the centre piece is shattered, rendering a striking effect. This provides a focus for the decor. A Glass Door in the place of Wood can also be Structured to show the Grains of Wood. A Mesh Glass or a Door in which pieces of Slumped Glass are set in an angle can be used for a Pooja Door, thus giving Ventilation and Privacy.

The decor appears lighter and there is at the same time light, Ventilation and Privacy where necessary. Breaking up the wood, finish of a wardrobe with Ornamental Glass gives it Openness and Artistic Taste. A glass partition helps you to close off one section without creating that explicit impression.

A glass wall that reveals the Beauty of Garden is Fresh in its Effect and a Glass Path that leads to the Entrance with Water Having Marine Life Flowing Underneath gives a Splendid Effect. Roofs too can be made of Glass. It can be utilized in an open Skylight Area to provide Ventilation and Structuring of the glass can be done according to it. Having a Tiled Glass Roof is a good idea.

As open bathrooms are much in fashion, glass partitions will lend openness and help in demarcating the area. A glass wash basin next to a dining section will look Sleek and be useful at the same time.

Peppering the furniture with glass decoration relieves the monotony and adds elegance. Novel ideas like, Odd-shaped glass for Coffee and Dining tables, Small glass display pieces etc., would be Artifacts worth displaying. You can even have Glass Sofas or Centerpieces balanced on pieces of glass kept on top of one another or a bar cabinet that appears as a block of melting ice. There is no end to the Imaginative ideas that the Glass can Portray.



Insurance is a method of mitigating risk. And the same logic applies to housing insurance as well. There are two aspects of housing insurance. First insurance is for housing loans and second insurance is for the house property per se.

A major deterrent for housing loans is the risk involved. Some people are reluctant to take a housing loan because of the risk involved. The loan amounts are large with tenures ranging from 5-30 years. There is a risk of not being able to repay the loan because of some unforeseen event happening in the life of the Borrower. The question that bothers some is, ‘what happens in case the sole earning member meets with a mishap? How would the housing loan get repaid by the surviving members of the family of the Borrower?’

At the same time, a Bank is also concerned about recovery of its dues in a simple a manner as possible, without having to go through the long and tedious process of enforcing the mortgage. With changing times, Banks have come out with new and innovative schemes. This has been complemented by an upsurge of insurance companies. They provide security for repayment of loan in case of untimely demise of the Borrower. Private players are entering the insurance market, and many new products have been launched. These give a wide variety of options to protect a home loan. Many products are flexible and suit the requirements of the Borrower.

The premium can be for pure risk cover or they may cover both risk and investment objectives. Many variants of the insurance schemes are available in the market depending on the requirements. The insurance cover can be for a pure insurance purpose or for insurance and investment. The premium payable and the returns vary accordingly.

Various optional add-ons can be combined, including critical illness cover, term rider cover etc., on payment of extra premiums. These optional benefits are to suit the specific needs of the individual.

The second aspect related to housing insurance pertains to insurance for the house property per se. This applies to constructed property. The insurance company covers risks of damage to property by earthquake, flood, lightening or other specified risks. In case of such damages, the insurance company makes good the loss suffered by the insured.

In case, one opts for the pure insurance product, only the risk is covered, i.e., the risk of non-payment due to demise of the Borrower. The premium is low in such a case. This is a term insurance. After the repayment of the loan, the Borrower does not get anything. The insurance cover comes to an end on completion of loan repayment.

In non-participating, pure risks cover plans, no benefits are payable on survival at the end of the policy term. The sum assured under the level term assurance plan is paid to the beneficiary. There are no maturity benefits on survival till maturity.

In case of insurance plus investment products, the product covers the risk and also promises a return on the expiry of the loan period. The Borrower gets back the sum assured along with the accumulated bonus on the expiry of the loan period. The premium payable is higher in such a case.

Some Banks give free or concessional cover. In some cases, the entire premium for the tenure is collected in advance on the basis of the rate applicable to the particular age group. The premium depends on the loan amount, sum assured, and the age of the Borrower. The sum assured is equal to the outstanding loan amount. In addition, in some cases, the property itself is insured for the loan amount to prevent any loss on account of damage to it.

Sunday, 18 December 2016


The land venture has furnished a few financial specialists with positive pay, charge points of interest and fulfillment of building an: interest in an exceptionally unmistakable quality. On the other hand, as in the other venture, there are a few intricacies and patterns inside of the business sector that require to be comprehended for serene ownership and joy of the property. There are a larger than average scope of financial specialists who contribute their well deserved money while not a radical examination of the reports furthermore the validity of the merchant and consequently arrive themselves into issues when their venture. Along these lines, it's important to require a few safety measures before speculation. 

Interest in property conveys with it a fabulous potential for making riches and it needs taking some without a doubt troublesome decisions. Reinvestment inside of the property and time administration all wishes cautious thought. 

Property speculations are the sparkling lights in your own or business cash portfolio. The majority of made speculators have without a worry in the world properties. You should mean to curtail your obligation as in the blink of an eye as you'll have the capacity to by re-contributing your cash back to your property contract installments that progressively raises your web esteem. Do your arrangement. Try not to accomplish something alone. Work with experts or checked made financial specialists to abstain from ending up in control. 

By situating yourself with the best possible talented you'll have the capacity to stay away from the without a doubt basic errors so you'll have the capacity to ensure a brilliant return on your venture. Income, capital gratefulness, charge focal points, related pride of ownership are only a couple of the things that require to be tended to before you make a venture. 

An accomplished realty talented can render frightfully supportive administration in assessing your longings and in recommending you suitably. Affirm that you just have the correct specialists. Anticipating consistent gratefulness inside of the cost of the property is extremely troublesome if unrealistic for the unseasoned entrepreneur. Property that grub away cash month to month will deplete your capital. This will deliver anxiety, dissatisfaction and turn out to be entirely agonizing. A strain on your wage could make you offer the venture before the upsides of ownership are ever finished. 

Check everything with respect to the property into record devolution history, rents, installment of charges, costs; stores and so forth raise the inhabitants in regards to tormenter issues, auxiliary damage or consistent issues. Try not to neglect something. Once fund your well deserved money make certain and use sound business judgment. Protect yourself against the dangers that take up with speculation property. Take protection ensure your property. The rundown of records to be inspected furthermore the statutory should be culminated is horribly a few. they will encapsulate getting Building licenses, adherence of zoning laws, building bye-laws, examination of rental and lease deeds, if any, examination of advance archives, investigation of title deeds, and so on. In case you're not prepared to appear into these archives yourself then it's vital to have communication a confirmed proficient to endorse those for you and singularly then you will finish up the arrangement. However regardless of it will be don't imagine to make love alone. 

Do far reaching historical verifications on any forthcoming inhabitants. Past landowners, managers, cash references, credit and judgments ar all exceptionally essential. In the event that there are any inquiries do intensive examination. Drive by their past living arrangement. Fairly work direct will spare gigantic issues later. 

Charge honest rents, approach your occupants with deference and react as fast as feasible to their yearnings. it is a ton less costly inside of the long-standing time to require consideration of the little issues before they get to be enormous issues. Get letters from occupants affirming the remaining of residency. 

Ensure their adaptation of the rental or lease assention compares with the venders understanding.

Thursday, 15 December 2016


                                     WOMEN’S PROPERTY RIGHTS

Earlier women did not have any rights in the property and they were at the mercy of the male members of the family. Joint Hindu Family, unique institution, acted as refugee home of many women and widows and with the disappearance of the Joint Hindu Family, the plight of women worsened.

Successive governments have enacted various laws aiming at improving / conferring property rights to women. Hindu Women’s Rights to the Property Act, 1937, deals with the rights of Hindu widow, on her husband dying without making any will. In such cases, the widow or widows are entitled to the share of the property as that of a son. But, her interest in the property, Hindu Women Estate, is limited interest.

Karnataka Hindu Law Women’s Rights Act, 1933, confers limited rights in the property to any women. This limited right is called limited estate, where women do not have right to disposal of the property by sale or by will. Women had full estate rights i.e. absolute power including that of disposal by sale / will in Stridhana property. Stridhana includes ornaments, apparel, gifts received and property acquired by her savings.

The Hindu Succession Act, 1956, brought out revolutionary changes in the property rights of women. Section 14 of the Hindu Succession Act confers absolute rights to a female in any property possessed by female Hindu. The rights are of full nature including unfettered rights of disposal of property.

Section 14 of the Hindu Succession Act covers both movable and immovable property acquired by inheritance, devise, partition, in lieu of maintenance, arrears of maintenance, gift, property acquired by her own skill, purchase, prescription, or in any other manner and also includes Stridhana held by her before the commence of this act. This absolute right operates retrospectively, since Section 14 refers to the properties acquired before or after the commencement of the act.

Another area which was improved upon was the Co parcener’s property. Co-parcener’s property is a Hindu undivided family property. The members of Hindu Undivided property are called co-parceners who are related to the head of the family and attain the right in the property by birth. The Co parceners include relatives within four degrees including Kartha. Earlier females were not members of co-parceners hence were denied succession to the ancestral property. Many States such as Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Kerala etc. amended the Hindu Succession Act 1956.

Amendment to Hindu Succession Act in Karnataka came into effect on 30-07-1994. This act gives equal status to women as that of a Male. She becomes a member of Co parcenary by birth in the same manner as that of a son.

On partition of the co-parcenary property women is entitled to equal share as that of a son. The property so acquired is capable of being disposed by her through will or any other testamentary disposition.

In certain cases the ancestral house may be the co-parcenary property. Such houses are generally, wholly occupied by the members of the Joint Hindu Family. In such cases, the female member cannot force a partition of such ancestral house unless other male members in occupation of the house opt for partition. But, the unmarried daughter, a married daughter deserted or separated from her husband or a widow is entitled to a right of residence therein.

Wednesday, 14 December 2016


                                           WATER SHORTAGE

The most indiscriminate wastage of water and pollution of it has reached the highest level in our country. The water shortage in Indian cities and the ecological imbalances are resulting in inadequate rains in the country. The writing was on the wall for every one to see, yet there was no preparedness to face it. No new sources were searched, no new schemes to augment water supply were found. 

According to Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Pune, the mean rain fall has come down by four per cent between 1965 and 2006. But the usable rain fall for the same period has decreased by 12 per cent. A satellite study by the American space agency NASA conducted shows that the ground water reserves have gone down drastically. In the farming fields all over the India, the crops are drying. Kharif crops in the country is decreasing by 25 percent and the area under the oil seeds has also gone down by 0.70 million hectares. Indiscriminate cutting of trees, has resulted in drought in majority of the parts of the country. It is high time, which is running fast, that we take stock of the situation and put all out efforts to conserve water.

Technology for desalination plants is available to us. We have been talking of desalination plants for more than two decades, but have never been implemented. However, it has been implemented in Chennai successfully. The cities are on the development mode because of the influx of the people. The civic planners in India are not paying any attention to the growing population needs. Water is the most essential and first important need of life, not only for drinking but also the source of food production, so the authorities should wake up and take immediate necessary steps.

Tuesday, 13 December 2016

Economy in Construction

                                      Economy in Construction

Only a couple of years back, market for a Builder was booming. He was least worried about the cost of construction. His profits were high, even though he was not selling, people were buying from him. With recession, everything has changed and competition was created. They had plenty of options. They could now bargain, and have lucrative deal for themselves. Builder’s profits are naturally dwindled. And for the first time, he started thinking about economising, finding ways to save on construction cost, so that he can stand in competition and continue to be in the market.

With Multi-National Company’s coming in, it is no more amateurs’ market. Builders, with adequate financial support, with proven past record, capable of producing good quality work; delivering goods in promised time, will only survive. With this background, economy in construction becomes even more important.

Economy has to be targeted without compromising in any way on quality, amenities, specifications, and/or delivery schedules. Economy in construction, could be achieved by reducing on wastages and pilferages, reducing on inventories, repeated uses of shuttering material, and saving heavily on construction time, through better management techniques, use of computer, information technology etc.

Wastages on site could be kept in check by not storing too much material on site. Proper way of storing materials is very important. Limited stacks, leveled stacks do help in reducing wastages of materials. Materials should be ordered, as and when required. Double (or repeated) handling of materials is to be avoided, as this increases breakage, and also adds to transport charges. Unloading of materials in planned manner and near to final working place saves on lead charges. Working out the quantities of materials in advance and having periodical check on the same will signal management in good time, any attempt on pilferage.

Builders, have craze in ordering full quantity of materials, thinking that if the materials are available on site, then what they have to look after is arranging only labour in getting speedy completion of work. But that is not true. Many times specifications, amenities are to be changed on technical reasons and/or as required by the planning/sanctioning Authority or by Client for that matter. Materials, already ordered or brought on site, then are unnecessarily wasted. More materials dumped on site, also results in more wastage and pilferage of materials. To get the quantity discounts, material rates could be negotiated on full quantities, with schedule of deliveries well defined. This will ensure that the materials are available when required, but payments are made only after deliveries are actually made on site. In business, funds are always short; funds are often arranged on heavy interest. Blocking money in unwanted stocks is therefore foolish and unpardonable.

Different ways should be found to save on technical grounds. Designing of shuttering materials and repeated use of the same will pay big dividends. Providing full beam from lintel to slab level, especially in residential buildings, will save lots of valuable time. Working on concrete-mix-design and using M20 concrete (instead of M15) will save cement, without any harm. PPC cement (33 grade) is cheaper by about Rs.6/- per bag. Use of PPC Cement for Masonry and Plaster, will not only save in cost, it will also minimise wall (temperature) cracks and resultant leakages and seepages. Where time is constraint, part use of steel fabricated member can come to help. While civil work progresses on site, fabricated members could get ready in workshop. From finished concrete, one can save cost of hacking and plastering and also construction time. Standardisation and Pre-casting could bring in major saving in cost. Construction time is saved. Finishing, like rendering and plastering, become redundant. Precasting saves time and money.

Besides, precast members invariably, look thin and elegant. Spot welding, of reinforcement, not only saves binding wire; it keeps reinforcement in proper place, thus giving better strength. Labour is no more cheap and mechanisation will definitely help in turning out large volumes of work in shortest possible time.

Systematic and planned manner of working will bring economy, as it will reduce rejections and/or repairs. In construction, it is now or never situation. Constant supervision is the ‘mantra’. It is very difficult and expensive, almost impossible to demolish and redo any work. Sometimes, it is even not possible to carry out any major alterations. It is recommended to avoid trails and experiments and to adopt only tried materials and methods.

Negligence, in proper use of materials, is criminal waste. With Global competition, it would be difficult to sustain, if we do not economise in all possible ways, in construction costs. Nevertheless, quality and time schedules are indeed to be met with.

Thursday, 8 December 2016


                           CONSTRUCT YOUR DREAM HOME

you need to do minute thorough homework. You must choose the style ranging from traditional to modern ones that suits you well. After selecting the style just check with the colors that matches the style. Everything must be doubly checked. Nowadays there are wide variety of furniture from traditional ones to latest ones. If you like traditional ones then go through the websites or magazines and choose the one that suits your home. There are building designers who can help you. The designers will do according to your taste. 

Homebuilding is not just building a structure built with brick and mortar. But it is something more. It includes decoration, furnishing, styling and designing of the building. Each room, starting from kitchen to bedroom and living room to bathroom, must be well arranged and equipped. Wide variety of accessories and items that suits each room are available in the market. Home building includes renovation of traditional homes into modern ones. 

Home building is an art where you make a simple space converted into perfect and comfortable living space. Before constructing a home you must have a plan about the building structure, design and decorations. Apart from these aspects people look to the vasthusasthra, and feng shui aspects and your house should conform to this requirement as well. If you have 

children then there comes question of childproofing your home. Each room of your home must be well equipped, designed, and decorated according to your taste and requirement. 

There are many options like luxury homes, modern home, contemporary home, etc. The most important thing of home building is the plan. You must have a clear idea of your requirement - whether be it small or big a house. If you need to get a stylish and beautiful home then you need to do minute through home must choose the style ranging from traditional to modern ones that suits you well.after selecting the style just check with the color that matches the style.everything must be doubly checked. Nowadays there are wide variety of furniture from traditional ones to latest ones.if you like traditional ones then go throught the websites or magazines and choose the one that suits your home.there are building designers who can help you.the designers will do according to your taste.

Decoration makes your home a real one. It is no secret that all homemakers. architects and other professionals related to home building industry find new ideas to make their work unique. From time immemorial_ plan and construct beautiful homes. Nowadays there are many facilities which can make your dream come true. You can find eminent architects, engineers, and contractors who can give you their best work_ There are many magazines, websites and books which tell you and show the best plans and you may choose the plan which most suits you. Garden is an essential part of homes. Everyone loves to have a garden space. You can have a perfect garden along with beautiful and stylish homes.